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Евростандарт № 15017 ( 2005 г.)

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EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPЙENNE
EUROPДISCHE NORM
FINAL DRAFT
prEN 15017
April 2005
ICS 03.080.30
English version
Funeral Services - Requirements
Services de pompes funиbres - Exigences Bestattungs-Dienstleistungen - Anforderungen
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for formal vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/SS
A08.
If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.
This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language
made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and
shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITЙ EUROPЙEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPДISCHES KOMITEE FЬR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels
© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.
Ref. No. prEN 15017:2005: E
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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Contents Page
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................3
1 Scope.....................................................................................................................................................5
2 Definitions .............................................................................................................................................5
3 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................8
Annex A (informative) "Laissez-passer" for a deceased or cremated remains (Example)........................27
Annex B (informative) Code of ethics of the International Cremation Federation (ICF) ............................28
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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Foreword
This document (prEN 15017:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC BT/TF 139 “Funeral
Services”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the Formal Vote.
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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Introduction
This document
 assures quality in funeral services including the highest respect for the deceased and bereaved and with
respect for local regulations in force;
 is intended to make funeral-related services and facilities and the underlying pricing principles transparent
for the consumer;
 contains framework recommendations, which duly consider the different provisions of national funeral
laws and the traditions of ethical, cultural and regional funeral rites as well as hygienic and environmental
considerations;
 lays down corresponding services as well as the information requirements to be fulfilled by the funeral
director;
 outlines the profile of vocational qualifications and further educational training of funeral directors and
other funeral personnel.
This document is based upon the following ethical rules:
 an ethical and professional relationship with client families;
 a sincere respect for all the beliefs and customs of the families;
 the right of the person(s) making the funeral arrangements to choose the funeral director and to decide
between burial or cremation;
 the right of the families to be informed of the estimated total cost of the funeral;
 complete confidentiality assured at all times, subject only to legal requirements;
 the honesty, loyalty and integrity of funeral personnel in the performance of their duties;
 the strict observance of all applicable laws, rules and regulations concerning the profession, both national
and international;
 objective, honest and sensitive publicity;
 a continuous effort to bring funeral professional knowledge to a higher level;
 integrity in the relationship with colleagues, national as well as international.
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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1 Scope
This document sets out the requirements for the provision of funeral services.
This document does not apply to product-related technical requirements. Occupational health and safety
requirements are not covered by this document.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply:
2.1
Bereavement care
Comprehensive term covering the offer of services intended to help the bereaved cope with the loss in
material and psychological terms
2.2
Burial
Interment of human remains
2.3
Ceremony hall
Special area for the performance of a mourning ceremony
2.4
Columbarium
Area where contained ashes can be stored in niches
2.5
Consultation
Establishment of the wishes of the client, suggestions regarding products and services to be delivered and
their costs
2.6
Consultation on the pre-arrangements of funerals
Elaboration of an individual proposal regarding the deliveries and services for a future funeral, including its
financing
2.7
Cortege
Procession of people who are walking and/or riding to a funeral
2.8
Cosmetic application
Superficial corrections, covering, and enhancement of the natural features of the deceased
2.9
Cremation
The entire procedure of incineration of the deceased
2.10
Cremation services
Any services pertaining to the cremation process
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2.11
Crematorium
Building fitted with appliances for the purpose of exclusively burning human remains, including everything
incidental or ancillary thereto and with a public area, which allows a dignified farewell ceremony
NOTE The building is often equipped with a viewing room, and possibly with refrigeration facilities.
2.12
Embalming/Thanatopraxy
Process of effecting the temporary preservation of the deceased
2.13
Encoffining
Placing of the deceased in a coffin/casket
2.14
Exhumation
Removal of human remains, in whatever form, from the place where they are interred
2.15
Final settlement
Comparison of the invoiced amount and the amounts received in the form of death allowances and insurance
benefits and calculation of the credit or debit balance
2.16
Funeral director
Qualified person responsible for carrying out funeral services
2.17
Funeral personnel
Persons working in funeral services and appropriately trained and skilled to fulfil the general and specific
requirements of the tasks concerned
2.18
Gravedigger
Person who possesses the capacities essential for safely digging and filling in graves and who also may be
competent for handling coffins and human remains in the context of exhumation
2.19
Gravedigging
Manual or mechanical opening, reopening, preparing and/or closing of a grave, vault or mausoleum, including
the memorials and facing structure(s)
2.20
Hygienic material used in the handling of deceased
Materials, products and instruments which, through their disinfectant and protective effect, counteract a
potential health hazard for persons coming into contact with the deceased
NOTE Information on the hygienic material used is communicated to all members of the personnel in a Health and
Safety policy.
2.21
Identification room
Room where the deceased person's identity is checked and confirmed
2.22
(Initial) care of the deceased
Measures for short-term laying out at the place of death and preparation for collection
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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2.23
Invoicing
Statement of own and third-party products and services with their prices, including value-added tax if
applicable, as well as the fees and disbursements to be paid, together with the terms of settlement
2.24
Mortuary
Specific place suited for the temporary storage of the deceased
2.25
Obituaries
Drafting and publication of death notices and mourning letters as well as other textual or electronic notices
2.26
Officiant
Person who performs the funeral tribute
2.27
Pallbearers
Persons physically able to bear the coffin during ceremonies or funeral operations
2.28
Period of peace
Minimum length of time allowed to re-use the grave
2.29
Pre-arrangements of funerals
Contractual arrangements by which a person determines the detailed organisation of a future funeral
2.30
Preliminary advice on the pre-arrangements of funerals
Information on the purpose and form of funeral pre-arrangements
2.31
Preliminary information
Information about the various types of funerals, the procedures involved and the financing of the funeral
2.32
Preparation of the deceased
Measures to prepare the deceased as required
NOTE This service also includes auxiliary services, such as washing, disinfecting, undressing and dressing.
Temporary hygienic treatment (thanatopractic treatment, embalming) or conservation measures are not included.
2.33
Preparation room
Place especially equipped for the preparation and encoffining of the deceased
2.34
Presentation
Preparation of the coffin and handling of the deceased by persons duly qualified and physically able for this
task prior to the relatives bidding farewell to the deceased
2.35
Qualified person
Qualified person, as defined by this document, is a person who has the personal aptitude, has received a
recognised form of training, and has acquired the necessary vocational experience to carry out funeral
services on a comprehensive basis
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2.36
Reburial
Transfer of human remains from one place of burial to another
2.37
Restorative treatment
Measures to restore the life-like appearance of the traumatised deceased
2.38
Scattering
Distribution of cremated remains either manually or mechanically into the ground or over land or sea
2.39
Submission of a quotation
Statement of products, fees and services and their calculated prices, including value-added tax, if applicable
2.40
Temporary preservation treatment
Measures to inhibit the processes of decomposition
2.41
Transfer/Removal
Moving of a deceased person from one place to another prior to the funeral
2.42
Transport
Any national or international movement by road, train, sea or air of a deceased person, excluding cremated
remains, which is necessary between the time of death and the time of final disposal
2.43
Urn burial
Interment of the urn into an earth grave, burial at sea or placing of the urn in a columbarium
2.44
Viewing room
Suitable room for the bereaved to view the deceased
3 Requirements
3.1 Funeral personnel
Management shall ensure that funeral personnel receive regular training. Funeral personnel shall have the
skills and experience to deal with deceased persons and their relatives. One member of the funeral personnel
shall be a supervisor. Funeral personnel shall behave in a respectful manner.
Funeral personnel shall be properly trained and suitable for the task and shall observe an appropriate dress
code. Funeral personnel shall show due respect for the social, religious and cultural beliefs of the deceased
and the client.
Where possible the training shall lead to a diploma or the experience of the personnel shall be approved by a
recognised organisation.
3.2 Complaints handling procedures
The management and/or the professional organisation shall have a procedure in place for handling complaints
from customers.
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3.3 Monitoring system
A system of monitoring the quality of the services is recommended.
3.4 Care of the deceased and hygienic measures
3.4.1 Care of the deceased
3.4.1.1 General
The care of the deceased, carried out by the funeral personnel, shall be performed in accordance with the
following procedures.
If requested, designated persons, e. g. relatives or bereaved, shall be allowed to assist in the procedures, but
they shall be advised if this is recommendable/appropriate.
3.4.1.2 Management obligations
Management shall ensure that legal requirements have been met prior to any further actions.
3.4.1.3 Practical procedures
Initial care-taking shall comprise:
 undressing;
 removal and listing of personal effects;
 ensuring that all bandages, cannulae and medical implants have been removed;
 washing and superficial disinfection of the deceased (circumstances permitting);
 packing of bodily orifices, relieving of rigor mortis as much as possible;
 shaving (if appropriate);
 replacing dentures;
 closing of eyes and mouth;
 combing and hair-dressing.
While these activities are being performed, the deceased should be covered appropriately.
Implants that could be dangerous for staff or equipment of the crematorium have to be removed by authorized
and qualified persons.
NOTE Deactivation of defibrillators is necessary before removal.
If it is desired and possible, the deceased can be kept at home for an appropriate period of time.
3.4.1.4 Dressing of the deceased
The deceased shall be handled with due care and deference. Compliance with legal requirements regarding
clothing shall be ensured before the deceased is dressed. Care shall be taken to prevent soiling by body fluids.
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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3.4.2 Encoffining
The encoffining, performed by the funeral personnel, shall be carried out in accordance with the following
procedures. If requested, designated persons, e. g. relatives or bereaved, shall be allowed to assist in the
procedures, but they shall be advised if this is recommendable/appropriate.
As a rule and if no lifting equipment is available, the deceased shall be adequately supported (by at least two
persons) around the head and shoulders, the pelvis, and the legs, lifted up and carefully placed in the coffin.
As far as possible, the deceased should be laid out straight in the coffin. Care shall be taken to position the
head correctly on the cushion. The coverlet, if provided, shall be spread out over the deceased to cover from
chest to feet. The hands shall be positioned according to the wishes of the client.
3.4.3 Embalming/Thanatopraxy
3.4.3.1 Methodology
Embalming/Thanatopraxy shall be performed by means of arterial injection under pressure of suitable
preservative materials (e. g. embalming fluid) into the arterial system or cut arteries if an autopsy has been
performed. It is essential to achieve complete saturation of the tissues with the preservative solution. Drainage
shall be effected from the venous system or right atrium of the heart. In the case following autopsy, the
drainage shall be via the cut veins after which the liquid is removed from the body cavities. This shall be
supplemented by aspiration of the trunk cavities to remove body and other fluids and the injection of
preservative chemical into these regions to treat tissues not supplied by the initial injection. The preservative
materials shall be such that they will not cause undue discoloration or dehydration.
3.4.3.2 Education
3.4.3.2.1 Qualification
Embalming or Thanatopraxy courses shall consist of study in theory and practical knowledge in accordance
with a nationally recognised syllabus.
3.4.3.2.2 Theory examination
Students shall be required to achieve a pass grade in the Theory examination before attempting the practical
examination.
3.4.3.2.3 Practical experience
Practical experience shall include training in all types of subject including autopsied and non-autopsied cases.
3.4.3.2.4 Examination
An independent board of examiners shall provide the examination services and shall issue a diploma to all
successful candidates.
3.4.3.2.5 Recognition
Embalming/Thanatopraxy shall be performed exclusively by duly qualified persons having completed the
requisite training and where possible having a recognised qualification or State diploma where this exists.
NOTE A recognised diploma is one that is approved by a national state authority or recognised national
funeral/embalming organisation. In-house qualifications that have not been subject to totally independent examination or
assessment are not acceptable.
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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3.4.3.3 Embalming/Thanatopraxy consent
The Embalming/Thanatopraxy process may only be carried out after the completion of all legal procedures
and the consent of the client.
3.4.3.4 Facilities
Preferably, Embalming/Thanatopraxy shall be effected in a room especially provided for these purposes as
laid out under 3.4.1 and should include the preparation of the remains as under 3.2.1.2.
3.4.3.5 Reconstructive treatment
Any reconstructive treatment shall be subject to a specific order placed and/or the approval given by the client.
Disfigured remains shall be treated by means of suitable Embalming/Thanatopraxy procedures and, if
appropriate, severed body parts shall be reattached and missing body parts reconstructed as far as possible.
If this is not possible, the corresponding parts of the remains shall be concealed.
3.4.4 Cosmetic application
The application of cosmetics and materials shall attempt to restore the natural colour and appearance of the
visible parts of the deceased.
Any cosmetic application shall be agreed upon with the client.
The cosmetic application may comprise e. g.
 hairdressing;
 manicure;
 skincare;
 make-up.
Clients should be allowed to assist in the procedure, if appropriate.
3.5 Removal/transfer and transport
3.5.1 Removal/transfer of deceased
Removal/transfer of deceased shall be effected using a dedicated stretcher, shell or coffin, as appropriate.
3.5.2 Transport of deceased
3.5.2.1 General
The transport of deceased can be by land, sea or air. Transport by land can be by road or by rail.
The following criteria shall be noted before transportation:
 time of death;
 duration of transport/journey;
 mode of transport.
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For transportation of the body regardless of the length of time between the time of death and the departure of
the body the following requirements apply:
 use of hermetical sealing is compulsory if death resulted from a contagious disease, e. g.:
 smallpox or similar diseases;
 cholera;
 anthrax;
 hemorrhagic viral fevers.
If there is no specific hygienic requirement, transportation of the deceased within 48 hours of death requires
no hermetic sealed container, embalming or refrigeration.
In all other cases provisions of 3.3.2.1 apply.
NOTE 1 It is advisable to check for any local regulations in the receiving countries which take precedence over this
document.
NOTE 2 For an example of a laissez-passer see Annex A.1
3.5.2.2 Conditions required for international transport
The conditions required for long distance international transport outside Europe are:
 hermetically sealed container
and/or
 embalming/thanatopractical treatment
and/or
 refrigeration.
In the case of refrigeration at no time shall the temperature inside the container exceed 8°C during transport.
3.5.2.3 Conditions required for national/European transport (after encoffining)
The conditions required for national transport and transport inside Europe are:
 the deceased person has to be transported in a coffin/casket;
 the inner lining and/or the outer cover of the coffin/casket shall meet necessary sanitary requirements.
3.5.2.4 Transport of cremated remains
When cremated remains are being transported, whether it be by post, courier, or any other means, they
should be secured in a suitable container for such purpose which should clearly identify the contents and be
accompanied by any necessary statutory documentation needed from the country from which they emanate
and their ultimate destination.
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3.5.3 Means of transport for deceased
The shape, colour and appearance of the means of transport shall correspond to the general feeling of
respect for the deceased.
The means of transport used for the transport of deceased persons shall be especially equipped for this
purpose. A hearse in normal circumstances contains only one coffin.
3.5.4 Equipment for the transport of deceased persons
The nature of the equipment used for the transport of deceased persons shall be such as to ensure safe and
dignified transport. This is subject to the unavoidable manual manipulation of the load, and to minimise the
physical burden on the personnel. Equipment used for the transport of deceased persons shall be checked for
faults and cleanliness before and after use.
3.5.5 Personnel for the transport of deceased persons
Transport personnel shall be physically and psychologically fit for this task and duly instructed in the manual
transport of deceased persons. Transport personnel shall be familiar with the correct and safe handling of the
equipment used for the transport of deceased persons. They shall be able to perform the manual transport in
such a way as to ensure that the coffin or deceased person is safely secured during transport.
Respectful and dignified handling by the transportation personnel is encouraged, preferably through a
handling procedures manual.
3.5.6 Organisation of transport
Any transport shall be performed in a dignified manner.
For the transport of deceased persons within the national borders of a country, the appropriate documents
shall be available on demand. For cross-border transport, the deceased persons shall be accompanied by the
appropriate documentation.
In the case of cross-border transport, prior submission of the documents, if required, shall be submitted to the
relevant embassy or consulate for certification.
3.5.7 Public authority removals
For public authority removals, e.g. initiated by police, coroner or municipalities etc. the personnel shall be
physically and psychologically fit to perform the initial care measures even under difficult conditions. These
measures are to be performed with due consideration of forensic investigation and all hygienic, sanitary as
well as ethical requirements. Complete confidentiality is essential. Service providers shall refrain from any kind
of soliciting their services. After the deceased has been transported to the mortuary specified for this purpose,
any interference with the deceased prior to its release by the competent authority is forbidden. Personal
effects which have not been removed by public authority should be recorded.
The provider of special transport services shall be accessible at any time. The short-term collection of
deceased persons by the provider of such services shall be guaranteed at any time of day or night.
3.6 Funeral home facilities
3.6.1 Funeral facilities
Funeral facilities can combine single or multiple usage as appropriate to the task:
a) preparation area:
prEN 15017:2005 (E)
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 unloading area;
 identification room;
 cold storage;
 preparation and/or embalming room;
b) public area:
 reception;
 arrangement rooms;
 sanitary facilities (e.g. toilets);
 viewing room/lounge;
 ceremony room;
c) staff facilities
d) administration facilities.
3.6.1.1 Preparation area
3.6.1.1.1 General
The rooms shall be secured against unauthorised access and the penetration of animal/insect pests.
3.6.1.1.2 Unloading area
The unloading area has to be a discreet area where the deceased person is transferred into the facility. There
should be adequate hand washing facilities present. The floor shall be impervious and easy to clean. There
shall be a drainage point.
3.6.1.1.3 Identification room
The identification room, if applicable, shall be accessible and designed to receive the public in an appropriate
way.
3.6.1.1.4 Cold storage
Refrigeration facilities shall be equipped with a system to ensure a constant temperature of above 0°C and
below 5°C. The facilities and equipment should be easy to clean and of atraumatic design. The cold storage
has to be reserved for human remains only. Deep freeze facilities may be required in addition.
3.6.1.1.5 Preparation and/or embalming room
These facilities shall be separated from other areas.
The risk of infection shall be minimised or prevented through structural and hygienic measures. Animal/insect
pests shall be kept out and pest control, if necessary, is to be ensured. An adequate disinfection
system/facilities for sterilising the instruments shall be available.
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Suitable working facilities shall be provided, e. g. washing or embalming table. The floor and the walls shall be
impervious and easy to clean. There shall be a drainage point as well as waste collection facilities and
adequate lighting and ventilation. Drainage openings in the floor shall be equipped with a trap. The surfaces of
furniture and equipment shall be easy to clean and disinfect.
The preparation and/or embalming rooms should be used for hygienic treatment and presentation purposes
only.
Emergency first aid facilities shall be provided.
3.6.1.2 Public area
3.6.1.2.1 Arrangement room
A suitable room shall be available within or away from the funeral home for the purpose of arranging the
funeral in confidence and privacy.
3.6.1.2.2 Sanitary facilities
Sanitary facilities (e. g. toilets) shall be provided.
3.6.1.2.3 Viewing room
The viewing room shall be an area where the deceased can be viewed in private, following any treatment
carried out, according to the wishes of the client.
Strict hygienic conditions shall be maintained. The furnishings shall be designed in accordance with the
intended use of the rooms. Adequate seating for the bereaved should be provided.
Viewing rooms should be ventilated and/or air-conditioned. Viewing rooms should be suitably sound-proofed.
A suitable means of communication with the funeral staff may be provided.
3.6.1.2.4 Ceremony room
A ceremony room may be made available.
3.6.1.3 Staff facilities
Adequate facilities shall be provided for the staff, e. g. washing and toilet facilities, kitchen, resting and
changing area.
3.6.1.4 Administration facilities
Administration facilities shall be available.
3.7 Funeral
3.7.1 Removal of the deceased
The funeral home shall maintain a record of all removals of deceased persons.
3.7.2 Viewing
The condition of the deceased, coffin/casket and viewing room shall be checked prior to each viewing
according to the following list:
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 position of the deceased;
 hair style;
 coffin/casket interior;
 personal items placed in the coffin;
 polishing of coffin/casket;
 repairs, if necessary (e.g. in case of transport damage);
 preparation of the viewing room (e. g. candles, lights and flowers);
 book of condolence;
 availability of tissues.
3.7.3 Funeral ceremony
The funeral ceremony may be organised as follows:
 positioning the coffin prior to the ceremony;
 seating the mourners;
 liaising with the person conducting the ceremony;
 organisational arrangements (e. g. flowers, candles, music, decorations, printed items, flags, condolence
book and condolence table).
3.7.4 Cortege
A cortege shall be organised by the funeral director according to protocol and agreement with the client.
3.7.5 Committal (grave side ceremony)
The farewell ceremony at the grave shall be organised by the funeral director according to protocol and
agreement with the client.
NOTE The farewell ceremony may consist of e. g.:
 checking the security of the grave (guard-rails for procession, if necessary);
 checking the necessary equipment;
 placing of the mourners (relatives, guests of honour);
 lowering of the coffin into the grave upon signal or as agreed (manually or by means of lowering device);
 establishing the order of farewell speakers;
 establishing the order in which flags are lowered, if appropriate;
 assistance to relatives during farewell;
 handing over of flowers;
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 displaying of flowers;
 provisions for soil or petal scattering;
 provision of holy water;
 agreement on positions at the grave and procession route (approach and departure of mourners);
 public address system (audio);
 collection of condolence books, sympathy cards.
3.7.6 Burial (excluding cremated remains)
3.7.6.1 Existing burial place
In the case of an existing burial place, the following issues have to be considered:
 registered owner, right of interment (term of possession, successor);
 number of interments permitted;
 number and record of previous interments;
 memorial;
 preservation of skeletal remains;
 work to be carried out prior to the funeral.
3.7.6.2 New grave
In the case of a new grave, the following issues have to be considered:
 type of grave (e. g. individual grave, common grave, vault, mausoleum);
 arrange selection of burial plot;
 location;
 registered owner, right of interment.
3.7.6.3 Opening and closure of the grave
This activity may only be performed by persons who are appropriately skilled and physically fit for this task.
Completion of an appropriate training course is recommended.
3.7.6.4 Grave dressing
The following items may be used to dress the grave, if appropriate:
 lining of grave;
 grass matting, tarpaulins, pine or fir branches to cover the excavated material;
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 trees and/or floral stands for decorative purposes;
 religious symbols;
 candle-sticks;
 wreaths, bouquets and other flower arrangements.
After closure of the grave, a temporary mound can be left, if appropriate. The wreaths, bouquets and flowers
deposited at the grave site have to be arranged according to traditions and the wishes of the family. The grave
site and the surrounding graves have to be cleaned.
3.7.6.5 Exhumation
3.7.6.5.1 General
Prior to an exhumation, the following issues have to be considered:
 permission for exhumation;
 registered owner, right of interment (term of possession, successor);
 number and record of previous interments;
 memorial;
 preservation of skeletal remains;
 name(s) of the deceased;
 original date(s) of burial(s).
3.7.6.5.2 Exhumation on behalf of authorities
In the case of an exhumation performed on behalf of authorities, instructions shall be followed regarding the
conduct of the exhumation.
3.7.6.5.3 Exhumation performed on behalf of the relatives
In the case of an exhumation performed on behalf of the relatives, given the permission of appropriate
authorities, the mortal remains may be unearthed with or without the coffin; the former only provided that the
condition of the coffin permits disinterring.
NOTE To comply with sanitary regulations, it may be necessary to place the mortal remains into a new, transportable,
water-tight coffin or other suitable container.
3.7.6.6 Burial of deceased at sea
Burial at sea is permitted subject to national legislation.
3.7.7 Cremation
It shall be verified that the coffin and its inner lining are suited for cremation. Implants that could be dangerous
for staff or equipment of the crematorium have to be removed by authorised and qualified persons.
All cremations shall be carried out separately to ensure that there is no mixing of ashes.
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Only human remains shall be cremated at a crematorium.
It should be an individual's right to determine the final method of the disposal of their ashes.
Appropriate steps shall be taken to ensure adequate identification of the deceased on arrival at the
crematorium, through the cremation process until the final disposal of the ashes.
The products or residue of a cremation shall not be used for any commercial purpose.
All staff involved with cremation shall be competent in the tasks that they perform and hold suitable
qualification.
NOTE For cremation services refer to Code of ethics of the International Cremation Federation (ICF).
3.7.8 Disposal of ashes
Disposal of ashes may include the following, subject to national legislation:
 burial in the ground;
 burial at sea;
 columbarium;
 mausoleum;
 scattering;
 retention by the family.
Urns have to carry the identity of the deceased.
NOTE In case of burial at sea urns may be buried either individually or collectively. It should be verified whether the
urn is of the type permitted for burials at sea (bio-degradable). A certificate of burial at sea should be delivered to the client
or an entry should be made in the ship's log, where applicable.
3.8 Advisory service
3.8.1 Funeral director
It is the responsibility of the funeral director to ensure that all legal obligations regarding the deceased have
been complied with, e. g. the medical certificate of cause of death has been issued.
It is the duty of the funeral director to advise clients comprehensively, correctly and with due consideration of
the financial possibilities of the person seeking advice.
The funeral director at all times shall behave with tact and sympathy, bearing in mind the emotional situation
of the client.
The funeral director should present an appropriate appearance and be articulate.
Advisory services, consultation and agreements over the organisation of funerals shall be dealt with
exclusively in appropriate offices of the funeral company, or another place if explicitly asked by the client, with
the strict exclusion of locations inside public and private sanitarian structures, mortuaries and identification
rooms.
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3.8.2 Introductory advice and information
A preliminary consultation serves to define the wishes of the prospective client seeking advice. All legal issues
arising in connection with the funeral are to be discussed, such as:
 the person(s) who are entitled to make all necessary funeral arrangements;
 type of funeral;
 person signing application for cremation, if required;
 meeting the funeral costs;
 funeral timings;
 acquisition of and right to the grave, if required.
Clients are to be informed of the relevant possibilities for the arrangement of the funeral, with consideration
given to the religious persuasion or otherwise of the deceased.
Clients are to be informed of the relevant possibilities for participating in the arrangement of the funeral.
3.8.3 Services and costs
The range of services and products delivered by the funeral director, other enterprises and/or public
authorities shall be listed.
A full written estimate shall be given.
3.8.4 Consultancy and advisory services for funerals
3.8.4.1 General
The clients shall be made aware that several options for a funeral are available.
These options might include the various types of funeral (burial, cremation) as well as an indication of the
various possibilities of disposal of the remains, including unmarked/anonymous burial, burial or scattering of
ashes in/on the ground or at sea and possibilities of burial abroad.
3.8.4.2 Verification of prerequisites as required by law or custom
In particular, it shall be verified:
 that the client is authorised to make the funeral arrangements;
 the relationship of the client to the deceased;
 if the legal and medical formalities have been completed satisfactorily;
 that on the medical certificate of death or other relevant document the cause of death has been entered
and/or if either contains an indication of a notifiable or known infectious/contagious disease;
 where necessary any special requirements and precautions that have to be taken regarding e. g. storing,
handling, embalming, encoffining, transportation, burial or cremation of the deceased.
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3.8.4.3 Advice to and agreements with clients
When consulting with the client(s), the funeral director shall establish and consider the wishes of the deceased,
if any, and those of the relatives or their representatives, regarding the details of the funeral. The services
offered by the funeral director for the type of funeral desired are to be suggested and explained. Details and
aspects of the funeral are to be discussed. These include e.g. references to the choice of a religious or
secular farewell ceremony, contact between the client and the clergy/officiant, agreement on dates and
confirming any transport needs.
Appropriate facilities shall be offered for the consultation with the client(s). Confidentiality shall be ensured.
Disturbances by third parties are to be avoided. The estimated costs and terms of payment are to be
discussed and agreed. The client shall immediately be made aware of any significant cost changes after the
initial agreement. In the case of such cost changes, the client should be advised of any possible opportunities
of how these deviations could be handled or solved.
The client should be informed on any hygienic measures to be observed, including, refrigeration, temporary
preservation and/or embalming/thanatopraxy.
3.8.4.4 Advice on types of funerals
The clients are to be informed of relevant details regarding the various types of funerals, e. g.:
a) Burial:
 possible cemeteries;
 types of graves;
 term of ownership;
 period of peace;
 number of interments;
 entitlements to certain types of graves;
 amount of maintenance required for the various types of graves;
 possibilities of erecting monuments and memorials.
b) Cremation:
 possible crematoria;
 authority to cremate;
 types of urns;
 types of graves;
 term of ownership;
 period of peace;
 number of interments;
 entitlements to certain types of graves;
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 amount of maintenance required for the various types of graves;
 possibilities of erecting monuments and memorials;
 entitlements to certain types of graves;
 possibilities of burial/scattering of ashes;
 possibility of separation of ashes.
3.8.4.5 Submission of a quotation
The written quotation should be as detailed and precise as possible; it should specify all the products and
services requested and indicate the prices calculated on a binding basis, including value-added tax, where
applicable.
For services to be rendered by sub-contractors and public bodies, contracted by the funeral director on behalf
of the client(s), prices and charges (subject to reservations) are to be specified. Charges and fees are to be
indicated according to the schedule of fees in effect. The order confirmation is to be signed by the funeral
director and the client(s).
The quotation shall specify a minimum number of items:
 professional fee(s);
 coffin/casket as selected;
 urn as selected;
 encoffining;
 transport requirements.
and, if provided:
 clothing for the deceased;
 use of funeral home facilities;
 hygienic treatment/embalming.
Disbursements should be individually itemised.
A schedule of prices for products and services shall be displayed publicly and prominently in the office of the
funeral director to be available for the client. The available items, such as coffins and clothing for the
deceased, can be displayed in a show room or in a catalogue.
3.8.4.6 Completion of formalities
Where applicable the funeral director shall verify that the following formalities have been completed:
 all necessary certification is in place;
 dates and times have been agreed with the relevant authorities;
 all third parties, such as officiant, musicians, photographer, have been engaged;
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 statutory allowances and insurance and pension benefits;
 in the case of cross-border transport: application for an international laissez-passer for the deceased;
enquiries with consulates and submission of the necessary documents and that the transporting agents'
requirements have been met;
 any advance payment of relevant charges has been received.
3.8.4.7 Publishing requirements, death notices and acknowledgements
3.8.4.7.1 Obituaries
The clients are to be informed of the various options. The most suitable form of publication is to be selected in
agreement with the clients.
The funeral director can assist the clients in drafting the text and layout and in making the necessary
arrangements for the announcement.
Reference should be made to different media costs. The potential offered by other media is to be explained.
3.8.4.7.2 Printed and electronic items
If required, the production and delivery of printed or similar matter is to be effected. Prior to that, the clients
are to be advised on the use of photographs of the deceased, public notifications and the expression of thanks
for condolences received. Care shall be taken that the notices reach their addressees in time. Invitations, e.g.
to the funeral reception, shall be arranged and produced. The client should receive proofs of any produced
matter for approval.
3.8.4.8 Organisation of the funeral ceremony
Any advice from the funeral director shall reflect the beliefs and wishes of the deceased and the customs of
religious or secular ceremonies.
Considerations for the ceremony room shall include, if possible,
 number of seats available for those expected to attend;
 facilities and equipment for those with special needs attending;
 adequate facilities for live and recorded music;
 space for floral tributes;
 tables for condolence books;
 appropriate decoration;
 technical equipment;
 lighting.
The advice regarding the sequence of the ceremony and the coordination of the ceremony from start to finish
shall include, if appropriate,
 funeral procession to and from the ceremony room;
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 provision of a photograph of the deceased, a cushion or stand for orders and distinctions, condolence
books;
 final journey to the point of committal;
 farewell at the grave or crematorium;
 decoration of the grave side and covering of the excavated soil with mats or natural greenery;
 items and technical equipment required for farewell, e. g. lowering device, flowers, soil.
3.8.4.9 Funeral ceremony conducted by religious or secular officiant(s)
The sequence of the funeral ceremony is to be discussed with the officiant(s). The sequence of the ceremony
and the time schedule are to be agreed. If there are several speakers, the order of their appearance is to be
determined in advance.
Seating arrangements are to be made according to the rules of protocol, tradition and custom.
The following should be taken into consideration, if necessary and permitted: A public address system should
be provided and checked in advance. The possible presence of guards of honour and flag bearers should be
discussed. It should be determined if and where the clients wish to greet those attending the ceremony. The
clients should be asked if sound or video recordings of the speeches and/or the ceremony are desired. The
type and extent of media presence, if any, shall be discussed with and authorised by the client(s).
3.8.4.10 Music
The clients should be asked what kind of music they wish to have played. Their wishes should be discussed
and the sequence of music agreed with the relevant parties. Any musicians and singers required should be
engaged. In the case of live music, seats are to be provided for the musicians. If necessary, sheet music is to
be procured. Necessary sound systems should be in place and any liability to pay royalties should be
investigated.
3.8.4.11 Post-funeral advisory and support services
The following has to be agreed upon with the clients, if required:
 catering services for the funeral reception;
 notify the cemetery gardener;
 transport of the attendees from the funeral to the reception;
 provision of accommodation, for attendees;
 monumental mason;
 collecting and handing over of books of condolence, flower cards, letters of sympathy and similar
memorabilia;
 post funeral arrangements for the urn.
If required, the funeral director should inform the clients where independent legal advice regarding the estate
of the deceased, inheritance and pension payments can be obtained. Upon request, the funeral director may
offer information about bereavement counselling as well as other additional services.
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3.8.4.12 Invoicing
Invoices shall be issued according to the common commercial principles and shall be presented in a manner
that is clear, complete, accurate and easy to understand for the client. The invoices shall correspond to the
written estimate; any changes from this have to be noted.
The invoice shall differentiate between goods and services charged by the funeral director and any
disbursements/third party paid on behalf of the client. Copies of invoices for third-party services are to be
included or should be available for the client.
All prices shall be inclusive of VAT, where applicable, as indicated on the order form and shown on the price
tags and price lists.
The final invoice shall be rendered promptly. Any overpayment has to be refunded immediately.
3.9 Pre-arrangement of funerals
3.9.1 General
The details of a future funeral are to be set out in a document following the wishes of the person making prearrangements
for the funeral. The estimated current costs including fees and disbursements are to be
specified as far as possible.
3.9.2 Preliminary contact
During the preliminary contact it shall be clarified:
 for whom the arrangements are made;
 if the client is entitled to make the arrangements;
 if any necessary authorities are held e.g. rights of burial.
The implications of funeral pre-arrangements are to be outlined. The possible form and substance of the
agreement are to be explained. Different possibilities for financing the funeral are to be outlined.
Confidentiality shall be guaranteed.
3.9.3 Consultation
The wishes and requests of the person making pre-arrangements for a funeral are to be identified and
examined for their feasibility. Services, products, fees and charges involved in the type of funeral requested
are to be itemised as a proposal and explained to the client.
The questions to be raised shall include the contact person to be specified in the agreement and any other
person involved in the fulfilment of the agreement, if appropriate.
The consultation should take place in appropriate surroundings. If conducted in the premises of the funeral
director, disturbances are to be avoided.
The funeral director and/or the qualified person should be sufficiently experienced and trained in the conduct
of such consultations.
3.9.4 Financing
The financing of the funeral and the alternatives available for pre-paying have to be explained. This includes
the consideration of third-party contributions (e.g. social-security or insurance coverage).
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Any amounts of money received are to be placed in an interest-bearing and independent fund. The amount of
money has to be separated from the funeral organisation's assets.
NOTE To secure the financing of pre-arranged funerals, there are the following possibilities, e. g.:
 assurance;
 trust fund;
 third party account;
 savings.
3.9.5 Conclusion of the agreement
The individual services and products to be delivered for the future funeral are to be specified in a written
agreement.
The agreement shall contain a cancellation clause. The agreement is to be signed by the person prearranging
a funeral/client and the funeral director.
The funeral director should draw the attention of the client to the following:
 risk of fluctuating prices and interest rates and how this will be taken into account in the agreement;
 the agreement on the pre-arrangement of a funeral can contain an annex signed by the client,
documenting his/her wishes and countersigned by the funeral director.
Variations of the agreement shall be permitted subject to the payment of such fees and expenses as agreed
between the parties.
The client should make an explicit statement as to who he/she wishes to be the contact person in relation to
the funeral director.
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Annex A
(informative)
"Laissez-passer" for a deceased or cremated remains (Example)
“Laissez-passer” for a deceased or cremated remains
Authority is hereby given for the removal of the deceased/cremated remains:
Name and first name of the deceased:
Died on:
at:
State cause of death (if possible):
- Not applicable for cremated remains –
Contagious desease (yes/no):
- Not applicable for cremated remains –
Date and place of birth (if possible, if not: estimated age):
Date and place of cremation (if relevant):
The deceased/cremated remains is to be conveyed (means of transport)
from (place of departure)
via (route)
to (destination)
The transport of this deceased/cremated remains having been duly authorized, all and sundry authorities of
the States over whose territory the deceased/cremated remains is to be conveyed are requested to let it pass
without let or hindrance.
Issued at:
Signature of the appropriate authority (or by the funeral home for the transportation of cremated remains)
on:
Official stamp of the appropriate authority (or stamp of the funeral home for the transportation of cremated
remains)
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Annex B
(informative)
Code of ethics of the International Cremation Federation (ICF)
1. RESPECTFUL AND DIGNIFIED CREMATION
At all times the process of cremation shall be carried out in a dignified and
respectful manner.
2. PROTECTION OF THE CORPSE
The corpse shall always be properly attired and protected in accordance with
local tradition and recognised practices.
3. SEPARATE CREMATION - NO MIXING OF ASHES
All cremations shall be carried out separately to ensure that there is no mixing of ashes.
4. CREMATION OF HUMAN REMAINS
Only human remains shall be cremated at a member's crematorium.
5. RIGHT OF AN INDIVIDUAL TO DECIDE DISPOSAL OF ASHES
Ultimately it should be an individual's right to determine the final method
of the disposal of their ashes.
6. CREMATION TO BE THE ONLY OFFICIAL TERM
The word "cremation" shall be the official word used to describe the disposal method practised by
members.
7. IDENTIFICATION OF THE DECEASED UNTIL THE FINAL CREMATION PROCESS
Appropriate steps shall be taken to ensure adequate identification of the
corpse on arrival at the crematorium, through the cremation process until the
final disposal of the ashes.
8. BAN ON THE COMMERCIALISATION OF PRODUCTS OR RESIDUE OF CREMATION
The products or residue of a cremation shall not be used for any commercial
purpose.
9. ALL MATERIALS USED IN CREMATION TO BE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND
10. CREMATION STAFF TO BE QUALIFIED OR AT LEAST COMPETENT
All staff involved with cremation shall be competent in the tasks that they
perform and wherever possible hold suitable qualification.
11. STAFF TAKING PART IN FUNERALS TO BE SUBJECT TO THE CODE
Staff associated in any way with the provision of the service of cremation shall at all times adhere to the
Code of Ethics.
12. ALL PERSONS HAVE THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE CREMATION
An individual shall have the right to choose cremation and due regard shall be given to such desire
wherever this has been registered.

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